Opinion

Calypso Hard to Judge

We do it constantly. Raise our friends and foes to their highest level of incompetence. Empowering them to continue a malaise that has chased us through the centuries. Always willing to pull down and silence those who show aptitude and gifts in areas we are limited or have none.
Saturday night’s judging of the Regional Female Calypso was such an event. But it is not a one-off. It is a recurring theme across a nation which continues to see itself in isolation to the rest of the world. It continues to live as a stranger’s paradise where once you get off the plane or the ferry, the rules of the outside world do not apply and you are at the mercy of the smiles or the knives of the inhabitants.
This is the part where I’m supposed to write don’t get me wrong I love Montserrat. But if loving Montserrat means I continue to perpetuate a lie then I guess I don’t.
The show was brilliant. Those seven women delivered. Some of them delivered better than others. The final decision to award local singer Silvina Kandi Malone the first runner up slot was a let down on a spectacular evening of music and it was something everyone felt palpably.
Judges decisions are final but when the audience in the park, those listening on radio can tell that a singer was out of her league and not on the level of her competitors and she gets a top slot then there is a problem. Kandi’s lyrical dexterity was limited by the song choices, which were simply repetitive and have been for some time. They did not take us on a journey, bringing us to a place that the other six women did every time they stood on the stage….hope. Rather she took us around and around back to a chorus which made you just want the song to end.
It didn’t matter that they were singing about domestic abuse, gun violence, political systems that fail us. I kept longing to hear more from these Caribbean women. Every song ended with the idea that there was hope and we were it.
When the judges choose to award a performer a EC$7000 prize they did not deserve, they not only disempower the singer who believes they won fairly but the audience, who now wonders if the hope we feel is worthwhile acting on.
Maybe the violence and weak politicians the Caribbean suffers from are a result of other judgments that have gone against what was right, what was blatantly a decision not to elevate those who have worked and delivered their rightful rewards.
The Montserrat Festival is struggling. It needs to position itself among a region of festivals which have more money and larger media footprints and this competition is one way it can be done. However, when we do not allow the competition to function with integrity, we miss the chance to elevate a “local” show to the real potential it has…which is an international standard calypso competition which gives women a platform that is unmatched.
We’ve got to stop pretending we have arrived and are the only stars worth shining. Clearly Saturday night’s performance showed we have a ways to go in our writing and in our stage performance. If we don’t allow our people to see how they truly match up against other nations we will continue to allow them to leave the insolation of Montserrat’s shores and enter regional and international competitions believing they have a real chance when they aren’t even up to the basic standards. (This would be a perfect opportunity to discuss our queen pageant history but I shall resist the temptation.)
Stop it.
Give our people a real chance to grow by judging them fairly. When we can see how we rank against other singers, dancers, athletes, we can know how much harder we need to work to get better. Giving our people false ideas of greatness only permits them to be happy with mediocrity and that will not do.
The world is waiting to gobble up our children. We owe it to them to prepare them fully and with the best the world has to offer, not just Montserrat.

BTW Congratulations to Crystal Cummings-Beckles for retaining her crown. She was in a word, brilliant. Her writing prowess was also seen through the performances by Shaunelle McKenzie of St. Vincent (I wanted her to either win or be runner-up. She was that good.) Menell from St. Lucia…the woman delivered. Kandi could benefit from doing what these women have done which is to try different writers; perform regularly throughout the year; and compete in different forums outside their comfort zones so they can grow.

Telecom consolidation: 5 potential consumer benefits

Much has been written about the potential negative implications of the consolidation being witnessed in the Caribbean telecom sector. Service provider promises notwithstanding, the threat of higher prices, diminished service and limited choice is real any time there is a reduction in the number competitors in any market. In the absence of specific commitments and timetables, consumers have legitimate cause for concern.  However, there is also a basis for hope, as the integration of voice, data, mobile and cable business lines can deliver potential benefits to Caribbean consumers. Potentially.
Bevil Wooding - Internet Strategist - Packet Clearing House
Bevil Wooding – Internet Strategist – Packet Clearing House

If regional service providers can effectively tie together their horizontal and vertical business lines, it can be a game changer for the region. This will involve integrating business streams that span from submarine and terrestrial cable systems to fixed and mobile networks and cable TV operations. If done right it can lead huge financial rewards for the providers. At the same time it can help to fulfill development goals and integration aspirations of Caribbean nations.

Consolidation in the telecom sector is a way for operators to respond to consumers growing demand for digital content and services as seamlessly as possible. One only has to look at the examples in other markets like the US and Europe to see how consumer are benefitting from service provider innovation in the form of so-called “triple-play” and “quad-play” offerings.  The goal of Caribbean telecom operators is no different: provide consumers with a one-stop-shop for their communications and digital services needs.

What’s In It For Consumers

As operators buy their way into new markets and expanded business lines, and regulators and policy-makers worry about the challenges of monolith and duopoly markets, the interests of consumers could sometimes get lost in the melee.
Consumers’ questions to mega-buys-outs and mergers for the large part, can usually be summed up by: “what’s in it for me?”

Samsung TabletQuestions typically include:
• Will my cable, Internet or mobile bill increase or better yet, decrease?
• Will I get better or worse service?
• Will I finally get access to all of the channels and speeds available in other countries?

There are also questions consumers may not ordinarily ask, but that will nevertheless affect them. These include:
• How will integration cost savings translate into consumer savings?
• How will expanded vertical integration translate into new product and service innovations?
• Will consumer choice and service quality suffer as a consequence of diminished competition?

Regional is the New Local

Regional telecommunications operators for their part have been quite silent on what specific benefits consolidation will deliver to consumers in the short term. The operators know that they don’t have to wait on regulators or regulation to impose conditions before they act in the interest of consumers. For them the Caribbean is already, technically, one market. Now they can make that a reality for consumers as well. They can use their ever-expanding regional networks and infrastructure to deliver to consumers and business customers the elusive dream of a truly connected Caribbean.

Here are five areas where telecom operators can demonstrate that their willingness to strike a balance between their drive for profits and consumers /need/right/desire for service innovation and excellence.

1. Affordable Caribbean Calling and Data Plans

The Problem: Simply put, it costs too much to make calls and to use mobile data plans between CARICOM member states.
Potential Solution:  Eliminate roaming charges across all carriers, on mobile voice and data within CARICOM. Cutting roaming prices will lead travelers to make more use of mobile phones when abroad; resulting in more revenue for operators. For fixed line customers, the cost of calls to CARICOM countries should be dramatically reduced as well. This will also lead to more calls being made by both residential and business customers to family, friends and colleagues across the region.

2. Faster Broadband with Shared Data Plans

The Problems: No agreed definition of baseline speed for broadband; slow, unreliable or not widely available mobile broadband; and high costs for owners of multiple data-enabled devices.
The Solution: i) Define broadband as a minimum speed of 5MBps.

ii) Deliver proper mobile broadband services to consumers (not 2G and 3G masquerading as 4G). LTE mobile service should be the minimum speed for Caribbean mobile networks and its availability should be ubiquitous. LTE, an abbreviation for Long-Term Evolution, is now widely considered as the standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals.

iii) Introduce shared data plans that can be used by an individual, a family, or small business to cover multiple devices.  Shared data plans allow subscribers to split a single data package across multiple devices.

3. Consolidated Online Services

The Problem: Paying bills, making complaints, requesting and tracking services and managing your account can be a hassle.
The Solution: Use the technology and the Internet to provide customers with a one-stop online and mobile interface for accessing services and managing accounts.

4. Mobile Number Portability

The Problem: For consumers in most Caribbean territories, if you want to switch mobile providers, you will have to get a new number on the new network. There is sufficient cause for some consumers to stick to one provide even if they are unhappy with service, cost or options.
The Solution: Implement Mobile Number Portability (MNP) to allow consumers to easily switch over to another service provider while retaining their existing mobile phone number.

 5. Local Content

The Problem: Relative to the consumer appetite for local content, there remains a dearth of local television programming, feature film production and mobile app creation.
The Solution: Support for local content production. Investment in and structured support for content developers and app development with an emphasis on solutions to local and regional service delivery challenges. In addition to investing in local TV and feature film content production, Regional cable operators should come together to negotiate with content providers as one region to ensure that programming to North America and not Latin America.

Commitment Required

This is by no means an exhaustive list. These approaches can not only make for happy customers, they can also energize flagging Caribbean economies and create real opportunities for entrepreneurs and business to thrive.

Of course, this potential will not be realised automatically.  If history is any guide, private sector priorities don’t always naturally align to consumer wishes, or even regulatory preferences. But history also shows that where there is bold leadership, a pioneering spirit and a sense of purpose beyond profits, extraordinary value can be created for shareholders and customers alike.
We can only hope such leadership emerges from the tectonic shifts taking place in the Caribbean telecom sector. And if such hope fails, well, consumers may just have to put their faith in the region’s policy makers and regulators to get things right. One thing is certain, translating the potential benefits of consolidation into actuality will require a new levels of investment and commitment from providers and new levels of agitation and engagement from consumers. The rewards for all will be well worth the effort.

Bevil Wooding is an Internet Strategist with Packet Clearing House (www.pch.net) an international non-profit organization responsible for providing operational support and security to critical Internet infrastructure, including Internet exchange points and the core of the domain name system. Follow on Twitter: @bevilwooding

Toward a Single Caribbean ICT Space – Part II

Implementation Keys to the Single Caribbean ICT Space

By Bevil Wooding 

In 1989 the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy (CSME) was announced as an initiative “to deepen the integration movement and to better respond to the challenges and opportunities presented by globalization.” In the proceeding years, both the challenges and opportunities for the Caribbean have increased. As the potential of globalization evolved into a new global reality, Caribbean economies and Caribbean society have undergone unprecedented transformation.  Today, the question of deeper Caribbean integration is not just an ideal, it is an imperative for the region’s survival.

Rationale for the CARICOM Single ICT Space

The Single Market and Economy was envisioned to provide for the free movement of capital, skilled labour, and the freedom to establish business enterprises anywhere within CARICOM. It was intended to foster greater economic cooperation and greater social cohesion among participating member states.

Information and communications technology (ICT) has always been foundational to the twin ambitions of economic and social development.  At the national level, CARICOM member states have all identified ICT as a critical development enabler. In any regional integration effort ICT is equally critical to enabling such areas as commerce, trade, research, administration and security.

Examples abound. Information and communications technology is a central pillar of integration strategies in the European Union, the Federal Government of the United States, the African Union and the Asian Economic Community. In every case, an overarching vision for integration provides a framework of defining objectives to guide policies, priorities and implementation plans.

The priority of ICT to Caribbean region should be no different. Any plan for national development or regional integration must, of necessity, incorporate strategic appropriation of information and communications technology. This is why a Single Caribbean ICT space is not just desirable; it is necessary to enable the practical components of the regional integration effort.

The economic benefits to be derived from movement toward a single ICT space can redound positively to Caribbean society. Its fruits should be manifest in areas such as health and education, community empowerment, security and job creation. For such benefits to be realized, however, development of a Single ICT Space must be rooted in the understanding that technology is simply a servant of the region’s larger development vision.

Implementation Lag

Within CARICOM, however, that single vision has been considerably dimmed the slow pace of implementation of some of the basic tenants of regional integration.

At a meeting of Caribbean ICT stakeholders in Trinidad and Tobago, hosted by the Caribbean Telecommunications Union last June, several pertinent questions were put to CARICOM Government ministers by the audience:

“Why should I care about ICT if I still can’t easily move and work freely across the Caribbean?”

“How is it I can go to the US and rent a car using my national Driver’s Permit without question, but I have to purchase a license to drive in other Caribbean countries?”

“Why is it still so difficult for me to set up a business in another Caribbean countries?”

“Why does intra-regional air travel cost so much?”

“Why is so easy to set up a merchant account in the US to accept payments online and I can’t do the same in the Caribbean?”

“Why can’t I make a call to other CARICOM countries without have to pay roaming or international charges?”

“Why should I create anything in the Caribbean if I cannot easily register a regional patent or protect my IP it in a court of law?”

Tangible Results Needed

No satisfactory answers to these very relevant questions were offered. That’s a problem. The chasm between proclamation and implementation needs to be closed. There must be publicly perceptible value associated with the initiatives of the Caribbean Community. If implementation of important public-facing elements of the wider integration process continues to lag, the value proposition of any other element will be legitimately questioned and undermined. Any further erosion of public confidence only gives voice and vindication to a ready chorus of naysayers.

Vision to Reality

Advances in information and communications technology are radically altering the options and operations of business, governments and consumers. In particular, the Internet, mobile computing and the proliferation of web and mobile applications have permanently transformed how we interact and transact. As the global landscape evolves, so too must the region’s business, regulators, policy makers and leaders.

A single Caribbean ICT space should power our movement towards a single, seamless Caribbean space. The promise of a brighter, better Caribbean future remains within reach. Technology can indeed enable it, but it will take bold new leadership and better-coordinated human effort to achieve it.

Bevil Wooding is the Chief Knowledge Officer of Congress WBN, a Caribbean based international non-profit organization, and the founder and Executive Director of BrightPath Foundation, an technology education non-profit organization. Reach him on Twitter @bevilwooding or on facebook.com/bevilwooding or contact via email at technologymatters@brightpathfoundation.org.

SIDE BAR

10 Focus Areas for Implementing the Single ICT Space

To enable the Single Caribbean ICT Space, 10 critical areas in the region’s ICT sectors must be addressed:

  1. Legislation: Update and harmonize regulatory, legislative, financial and intellectual property protection policy to reflect and better respond to changing landscape
  2. Investment: Increase pubic and private sector investment in telecommunications infrastructure (particularly mobile broadband infrastructure) to improve access to critical telecommunications and Internet infrastructure in the region. This requires new models and new approaches to conceiving and capitalizing infrastructure projects.
  3. Regulation: Regulation and market growth must go hand-in-hand. A streamlined, modern, progressive regulatory environment is key to providing the competitive landscape with the safeguards and incentives that benefit commercial providers, consumers and wider national and regional development.
  4. Collaboration: The relationships and partnerships between the business community, public sector and academia will be key to sustainable development. Collaboration cannot be legislated, but it can be strongly encouraged.
  5. Affordability: Reduce cost of access for telecommunications services (including mobile, broadband; roaming charges; spectrum; and termination rates for data and voice).
  6. Incentives: Increase incentives to content creators and application developers to build the local content that connects Caribbean users to Caribbean digital content. Governments and Private sector support key to sustaining initiatives and training programmes that build capacity in content creation and service delivery.
  7. Education: The mindset, culture-shift and human capital needed can only be had with more a deliberate, strategic approach to education and social development.
  8. Public Awareness: Increase investment and effort at public education and consciousness-raising. An engaged media, an informed public and enlightened decision-makers will be key to implementation.
  9. Human Resource: The availability of skilled, knowledgeable human resource pools is key to developing the region. The education system is in need of radical reform if the region is to produce to quality and quantum of professionals needed to secure its forward advance.
  10. Leadership: Political proclamations must be matched by political will. At the end of the day, actions, not words will determine if the dream of a single ICT space becomes a reality.

Inbetween MCAP and PDM are Montserrat’s Real Needs

The date has been set for Montserrat’s elections – September 11, 2014. I won’t get into a discussion of the date and whether it is a good or bad omen as that is neither here nor there. What is clear is that both the incumbent government, the Movement for Change and Prosperity (MCAP) and the upstart People’s Democratic Movement Montserrat (PDM) have about four weeks to help a critical group make a decision.

The social media and barber shop noise would make you believe that the election is already decided but that is far from the truth. There is a group of undecided voters who can shift this election in a major way. They are educated, employed and empowered with the right to vote and a passion to see Montserrat do well. The lives of their children depend on it.

Neither party has yet been able to convince this group that they can get the job done. I don’t have exact numbers on this group but from discussions online and within the community, I recognize it is more than either party would care to admit.

PDM is presenting a campaign which is grand on plans but short on an execution strategy. In my mind’s eye I see them with constant outstretched hands to the British in the same way they’ve shown us Montserratians with hands outstretched wanting more but without an idea of how they can do more for themselves. Their messaging sounds as if they’ve got a direct line to the UK’s purse and blank checks will be handed over to spend at will.

There is no acknowledgement that the UK has consistently been speaking out of both sides of its mouth and we’ve got to make a decision as a nation of how we will deal with it.

“We want to help you be self-sufficient,” their officials say.

“Great we need a new port about this wide,which can help us attract increased cruise tourism and cargo shipping so we can be on our own faster.”

“Oh no, no. It won’t take all that…How about one yay high? Not as many boats but it will be better than what you have now,” is the suggestion/recommendation/edict.

“But sir, great sir that would mean you would have to keep sending us money. Aren’t we supposed to be working to be on our own?

And this back and forth continues on every project. Every time we say this is what we need, they say it “doesn’t take all of that.” Every time they say do it this way, next year a new policy and strategy with the compulsory consultations and economic impact assessments take us back to the drawing board.

The years go by and we can’t see progress because we are constantly on the drawing board and shifting people and money around, neither of which is adequate for the job at hand. We are fearful of breaking the rules which they keep changing and so we stay trapped. Wanting freedom but without the courage to make the tough decisions which will get us to a tomorrow where we can fly solo.

PDM’s strategy sounds like it will have us breastfeeding for years to come. We are almost 20-years-old post volcano and still the overwhelming message is to keep sucking for as long as they will let us.

MCAP has been assertive in its push to be more self-sufficient. They authorized the taking down of a mountain as a symbol of future intentions to build a port despite the fact no investors had come on board. The intention seems to wean the nation from milk but they haven’t presented an alternative to the milk.

They call for patience for that great day when the port is built, new town is open and we have a major hotel property. But what about now when even civil servants are asking for one-off support from social services? Is it alright for a few to benefit now, while everyone else waits for the Sweet By-and-By? That can never be right. Some may not live to see this bright future. Others may opt for the bright lights of a city if it means they can have the benefits now.

So,how do we get from here to there?

How do we get to walking and running on our own from the current position of being carried?

How do you shift a nation of people who live as if shell-shocked and unwilling to shine, to one which is proudly offering its gifts to the world?

Do we invest large sums of a very limited resource to buy medical equipment which we may not need more than three times a year or uplevel our visiting specialists program so that more people can benefit from the regular visits of doctors giving their services at little or no cost to Montserrat?

Do we settle for a miniscule port which limits us in the way our airport does now?

Do we keep engorging a civil service which has no enforced penalties and benefits for unsatisfactory work or exemplary performance?

Do we increase our social benefits to encourage more government dependency or provide more ways to empower our people to create jobs? Is it as simple as either or?

Do we add a new round of public policies which contradict each other when it comes to execution?

Is it possible to have a local government that truly looks after the needs of each physical community while considering the cultural dynamics of the various nationals now resident here?

Which party is offering solutions which show innovation and understanding of how we can get what we need while fully participating in a global marketplace?

Somewhere in the middle of MCAP’s plans and PDM’s dreams lies the needs of the people who have the power to decide on the next government for Montserrat.

Towards A Single Caribbean ICT Space

Political Will, Not Technology Needed for Success

By Bevil Wooding 

Bevil Wooding - Profile PhotoIn the face of the mounting economic and social challenges, the Caribbean urgently needs to tap into new sources of growth. Across the region, the search is on for areas that will create new job opportunities, improve its competitiveness and drive innovation. Creation of a Single ICT Space in CARICOM is expected to provide tremendous benefits, if the region can muster the collective strength to make it a reality.

Cautious Optimism

On the global stage, strategic use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is widely acknowledged as a critical pillar for sustainable and inclusive growth. However, the Caribbean lacks a genuine single market for electronic communications. Seeking to address this, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Heads of Government recently announced plans to establish a CARICOM Single ICT Space.

There is little debate over the need for such an initiative. The world is moving increasingly towards an Internet-based economy, directly affecting everything from traditional service sectors such as tourism, agriculture and finance to new sectors such as online retail, and software development. If ever there was a time to use ICT to breath fresh life into the region’s economies, it is now. Yet the news of CARICOM’s plans was met with at best, cautious optimism, and in some cases outright cynicism. This is not surprising. The regional body has a notoriously poor implementation track record. And the challenges of implementing a Single ICT Space are similar to the challenges that hinder several other well-intentioned regional initiatives.

Missing Opportunities

CARICOM is fragmented into distinct national markets, many with limited competition, aging infrastructure, outdated regulatory policy and high barriers to entry for new players. Consequently, the region is missing out on many of the opportunities of the digital age.

In an article in the Barbados Nation, the Secretary General of CARICOM stated, “Despite the much reported benefits of ICT, its development and adoption by developing countries, such as ours, have so far been limited. Reasons for this include lack of awareness of what ICT can offer, insufficient telecommunications infrastructure and Internet connectivity, expensive Internet access, absence of adequate legal and regulatory frameworks, shortage of requisite human capacity, failure to use local language and content, and lack of entrepreneurship and a business culture open to change.”

The Secretary identified the benefits of the Single ICT space to the region, stating, “The establishment of a Single ICT Space brings to the fore real benefits for consumers and businesses in our Community. The objective is to fully establish modern regional regulatory and open telecommunications infrastructures with affordable networks using converged technologies, to provide affordable and universal access. This would positively affect such issues as roaming rates, provide for a single area code as well as address copyright, spectrum and broadband matters.

Just as important as that single space is the development of a human resource capacity in the sector. This is fundamental as we seek to build a digital culture across the Community and increase the value and volume of the region’s trained ICT workforce that can create, develop and use ICT to improve lifestyle and economic value. Promoting such initiatives would also foster innovation and increase our competitiveness, both of which are essential in achieving our goal of sustainable economic growth and development.”

Confidence Lacking

Unfortunately, the noble objectives articulated by the CARICOM Secretary General are already undermined by some glaring omissions: Firstly, the absence of a unanimous, unequivocal statement of commitment and support for an accelerated implementation by member governments; secondly, the absence of any evidence that there has been profound consideration of the implementation requirements; thirdly, the absence of a detailed execution strategy and resourcing plan.

Based on the “Working Document for the Forty-Eighth Special Meeting of the Council for Trade and Economic Development (COTED) – Information and Communication Technologies”, it seems CARICOM is still very much in the preliminary stages of figuring out what exactly the Single ICT Space means for the region. Confidence to execute also seems to be lacking as the working document outlines its objectives in optional, non-obligatory terms.

For example, in describing the delivery of telecommunications services across the CARICOM Region, the document states, “operators need harmonised access to basic ‘inputs’ like fixed networks or spectrum. In particular this could involve more coordination of spectrum assignment for mobile/wireless services, in particular to align timing and specific authorisation conditions, so operators can more easily organise cross-regional activities;”

Such soft language places no pressure on member states to act or to comply. This is unlikely to instill confidence within the private sector. It is also unlikely to capture the interest and win the support of the Caribbean citizenry it is intending to benefit.

Test of Leadership

The case for a CARICOM Single ICT Space is strong, however, it must be communicated with conviction, and supported by tangible, decisive action if it is to succeed. The boldness to act must be rooted in an understanding of what is at stake. The economic benefits of investment in the creation of the Single ICT Space must be quantified. Likewise, the consequence of inaction and the implications for Caribbean economic growth and long-term competitiveness must also be defined.

Additionally, for a truly seamless space, every member states must be on board. This should necessarily include clear statements on the outright abolition of roaming rates within CARICOM; spectrum assignment coordinated at the region level; mobile and fixed broadband deployment; consumer rights and intellectual property protection harmonized across the region; and simpler, standardized rules across CARICOM to enable companies to invest more and cross borders with their service offerings.

Making this all come to pass point to one fundamental reality – there will be no Single ICT Space without first a commitment to a single Caribbean space.

The first priority in designing a CARICOM Single ICT Space is to devote attention and resource toward removing the barriers that hinder implementation of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy. This is an inescapable prerequisite to realizing the promise and potential of ICT at a regional level. Moving from lofty statement of intent to actual creation of a single, seamless ICT space will be a test of political will and resolve across the region. Ultimately, leadership, not technology will be key to making the dream of a CARICOM Single ICT Space a reality.

Bevil Wooding is the Executive Director of BrightPath Foundation, an international technology education non-profit organization. Reach him on Twitter @bevilwooding or on facebook.com/bevilwooding or contact via email at technologymatters@brightpathfoundation.org.

Side Bar: BENEFITS OF THE SINGLE ICT SPACE

For citizens and businesses more competition will boost innovation, choice and quality of service. With more economies of scale, dynamism and innovation, the CARICOM telecoms sector would be more able to compete globally and to provide new affordable superfast services.

A single telecoms market would have significant benefits for the wider economy, including industries in sectors such as automotive and health, for example, which rely on ICT inputs for production, for logistics and distribution, and for their products themselves. Operators would have the ability and incentive to invest in, develop and operate their networks.

SOURCE: Working Document for the Forty-Eighth Special Meeting of the Council for Trade and Economic Development (COTED) – Information and Communication Technologies – St. George’s, Grenada, 14-17 January 2014